Glaucoma Specialist in Bangalore

What is glaucoma?

Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve — the part of the eye that carries the images we see to the brain. The optic nerve is made up of many nerve fibers, like an electric cable containing numerous wires. When damage to the optic nerve fibers occurs, blind spots develop. These blind spots usually go undetected until the optic nerve is significantly damaged. When the entire nerve gets destroyed the person would go blind.

Early detection and treatment by your ophthalmologist are the keys to preventing optic nerve damage and blindness from glaucoma. Loss of sight from glaucoma can often be prevented with early treatment.

What causes glaucoma?

Clear liquid called aqueous humor circulates inside the front portion of the eye. To maintain a healthy level of pressure within the eye, a small amount of this fluid is produced constantly while an equal amount flows out of the eye through a microscopic drainage system. (This liquid is not part of the tears on the outer surface of the eye.)

Because the eye is a closed structure, if the drainage area for the aqueous humor — called the drainage angle — is blocked, the excess fluid cannot flow out of the eye. Fluid pressure within the eye increases, pushing against the optic nerve and causing damage.

What are the different types of glaucoma?

Chronic open-angle glaucoma:

This is the most common form of glaucoma. The risk of developing chronic open-angle glaucoma increases with age. The delicate mesh at drainage angle of the eye becomes less efficient over time, and pressure within the eye gradually increases, which can damage the optic nerve. In some patients, the optic nerve is sensitive even to normal eye pressure and is at risk for damage. Treatment is necessary to prevent further vision loss.

Typically, open-angle glaucoma may have no symptoms or vague symptoms like headache or frequent change of power of glasses, etc in its early stages and vision remains normal. As the optic nerve becomes more damaged, blank spots begin to appear in the field of vision. You typically won't notice these blank spots in your day-to-day activities until the optic nerve is significantly damaged and these spots become large. When the entire nerve gets destroyed the person would go blind.

Patient history to determine vision difficulties experienced by the patient that may limit their daily activities and other general health concerns affecting vision.

Visual acuity measurement to determine to what extent a cataract may be limiting clear vision at distance and near.

Refraction to determine the need for changes in an eyeglass or contact lens prescription.

Evaluation of the lens under high magnification and illumination to determine the extent and location of any cataracts.

Evaluation of the retina of the eye through a dilated pupil.

Measurement of pressure within the eye.

Supplemental testing for color vision and glare sensitivity.

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